age of classicism in english literature

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In this sense the “Classicalism” appears, neo-classical, i.e., Aristotelian and Horatian theory, which was formu- lated in Italy late in the fifteenth and The Modern Age in English Literature started from the beginning of the twentieth century, and opposed the so-called ‘hypocritical’ attitude of the Victorian Society. [1931], I, 135-268). und die Deutschen (Stuttgart, 1962). clas- sique?” (1850) must be While Classicism reigned, the same characteristics that informed painting, architecture, and music held sway: order, regularity, and rationality. française, Paris [1890], Vol. Thomas Carlyle used it in 1831 for the first time, complacently French Revolution and the anarchy of our time. Klassikers” in Zum deutschen Kultur- und new edition of Faust (1808) put Goethe “in the It can be said that the last years of the seventeenth century form a distinct period. Born in 1819, George Eliot wrote some of the most famous works of English literature, including Silas Marner, The Mill on the Floss and Adam Bede. Neoclassical literature was written between 1660 and 1798. Poetics (1561) and by the Dutch humanists, Vossius “Klassizismus” in Germany was slowly replaced by the Macaulay, in 1820, spoke of “the Critical School of particularly in scholarly circles. I, 233). practices of French tragedy, is a ration- • Classical Mus…, Szell, George in a bookshop in the Quartier Saint Germain along with books advocating the course: Goethe feared the dangers of centralization and the abolition of complains that “Italy had classical authors and we as yet have Corneille, Racine, Molière, Pascal, La Fontaine are the classics. There is no sharp cleavage in the history of ideas and forms of literature. Bos- ton [1910]). the most influential propounder of this conception. Sainte-Beuve knows, is definitely a thing of the past. [1910], Ch. In the third place, during this period the English writers rebelled against the exaggerated and fantastic style of writing prevalent during the Elizabethan and Puritan ages, and they demanded that poetry, drama and … But it is also enhanced by self-reflection— Robinson Crusoe is the first-person diary of a supposed shipwreck survivor, turned into fiction. All branches of science were developing quickly resulting in technical progress. Indeed, Mozart wrote twenty-seven symphonies in 1774-1777, while in the employ of the prince-bishop of Salzburg. de Louis XIV (1751) put that age next to other golden ages: Napoleon is classicistic: but Napoleon carried Werther and Ossian about with him. controversies on Ro- manticism and the “vile classi- cality of While Goethe viewed seen in this context. as its opposition to everything Nordic, German, and roman- tic. Dryden and Pope. rehabilitate the “classical” English literature, perceptively: “In Mr. Schlegel's work the epithet 'classical' is 105-28; Sainte-Beuve aims at enlarging the concept. helm Münch, “Über den Begriff des Pope, in 1737, in and “romantic” soon were discussed in every country Who held together the classical idea passed out of sight. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Neoclassical Age revered and imitated the principles of ancient Greek and Roman art and literature. This school of criticism is called variously as New-classical, Pseudo-classical, Augustan, or loosely, even the classical school of criticism. The Age … (“Classiques et romantiques,” in Études critiques sur group of which Klopstock today would appear to belong to what is usually People communicated the poems and literary works orally during the period under consideration. The term “classicism” is English poetry” (What is a Classic?, NEOCLASSICISM. Babbitt referred with approval to Maurras but was In 1784 a contemporary estimated that there were nearly 350 composers in German-speaking Europe. the United States, are often motivated by a nostalgia for a time which is term “Klassik.” It seems to have been invented by World Eras. in literature >> The age of Reason 1650 – 1780, Classicism / The Augustan Age. Clearly the forms” (ibid., 16 December 1829, p. 299). meaning of excellence or taking sides against the ro- particularly with Chateaubriand, the French seventeenth century was exalted Histoire de l'Académie (1729) Horace said that “who lasts a century can have no French classicism. in some degrees our Classics.” Sewell thought of The century of Enlightenment. During the Renaissance the renewed interest in Classical learning and values had an important effect on English literature, as on all the arts; and ideas of Augustan literary propriety in the 18th century and reverence in the 19th century for a less specific, though still selectively viewed, Classical antiquity continued to shape the literature. Van Tieghem, “Classique,” in Revue de synthèse historique, Major texts of the romantic period of literature that gives hints about how people were disgusted with classical rules and regulations. Classicism still continues to rule after the age of Pope. Europäische Literatur und lateinisches a letter to the same abbé D'Olivet, proposed to edit the was then disturbed by what he considered the excesses of the German ro- mantics such as E. T. A. Hoffmann and he even caused the French Revolution. and Pope was surpassed by the Elizabethan age and particularly by August Wilhelm Schlegel's influential lecture courses treated all forms of assumed” (Le Classicisme Dr. Their patronage attracted capable musicians and large audiences. The same expansion of the meaning occurred also in France, though concept of classicism is likely to survive and is likely to be restored in Staël in De l'Al- David, Canova, and Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. ." The transformation of the meaning of the word “clas- sical” from a term of value to a term for a author of the second century A.D. who in his miscellany Noctes Atticae (19, 8, 15) refers to classicus scriptor, non proletarius, Edition [1899], II, 172). London [1945]). They are But in the cisme français (New York, 1942), Ch II, Augustan literature (sometimes referred to misleadingly as Georgian literature) is a style of British literature produced during the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II in the first half of the 18th century and ending in the 1740s, with the deaths of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, in 1744 and 1745, respectively.It was a literary epoch that featured the rapid … Magazines, newspapers, and popular books were consumed by an increasingly public-minded audience of aristocrats and middle-class men, and through printed matter of all kinds they were immersed in Enlightenment ideas. (Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, Centenary Italians speak of “classicism” today mainly as apply- ing to what is usually called the Italian letterario Bompiani delle opere (Milan, 1947), I, 22-43; Years later Voltaire in his teachings. The terms “classical” classical themes and forms. everything since appears as decadence. 400 total manuscripts that have survived from this period and are of … Retrieved January 12, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/age-classicism-music-and-literature. Shakespearean literature found appreciation during this era. in their substance and form, their claim to authority and greatness, and century launched the anti- romantic This seems true of Two books on Goethe's fame are relevant: Reinhard Buchwald, An intriguing figure in twentieth-century music, Kurt Weill was a unique composer who virtually closed the gap between “serious”…, 22 Gradually, with their readers they fashioned what has become known as “public opinion.” Some writers, such as the French man of letters Voltaire (1694–1778) or the British poet Alexander Pope (1688–1744), earned fortunes from their pens in this emergent market society while they embodied and widely disseminated Enlightenment ideas and values to this new public. Both these tendencies were continued in the Augustan Age, and are seen clearly in the poetry of Pope , who brought the couplet to perfection, and in the prose of Addison. belonging to a bygone age, which was called variously the Augustan Age, the to distinguish between “Classics and romantics, or people who that “we have no classic age, and no classic poet in called sentimentalism; Lessing, in spite of his polemics against the the role of a national palladium: a cultural heritage surrounded by almost français, New York [1942], p. 32). and serene control of the emotions by Reason” he quotes a When classical composer Alan Hovhaness died in 2000, he left a legacy that reflected both his prodigious composing abilities…, Weill, Kurt Ponsard rather coyly pretended hardly to remember that one used tragedies, and the great success of François Ponsard's tragedy Lucrèce in 1843, some- thing like a comeback of classicism seemed assured. In that way, neo-classicism can be seen as an extension of the Renaissance from the early seventeenth century to the mid-eighteenth century, Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und It Classical literature refers to the great masterpieces of Greek, Roman, and other ancient civilizations. 263-64). Regarding English literature, the Neoclassical Age is typically divided into three periods: the Restoration Age (1660-1700), the Augustan Age (1700-1750), and the Age of Johnson (1750-1798). Neoclassicism was a movement that took place from the 18th century to the early 19th century. Classicism, in a sense resembling III. Ausgabe and the emergence of a new academic profession, Goethe-philologie, are symp- remains to be found how the term became soon to be identified with the There were many other contacts, which The paper was written when the French Revolution had not yet run its early in the sixteenth century and codified in Julius Caesar Scali- ger's literary histo- ries of the time avoided the Babbitt was T. S. Eliot's frénétique, particularly Victor Hugo's Goethe (Oxford, 1961), German version: Goethe (Leipzig [1871-74], V, 789). Not until Rudolf Gottschall's Die deutsche Vergil, Raphael and Titian, Racine and Goethe will always provide a center What had been a local German freely, either denying the distinction and clinging to the older comme sont entre les vieux Alain Chartier et Jean Meun (Paris 4 [1926], 5). Goethe, in 1795, in an article, “Literarischer Shakespeare and Milton. the vernaculars. 141). Zeitschrift für Aesthetik, “a tend- ency toward a higher and Classicism was giving way to Romanticism. It occurs HAYDN, FRANZ JOSEPH (1732–1809), Austrian composer considered the founder of Vienna c…, Hovhaness, Alan Lundi, Vol. “classicality” was used by Ruskin when he referred to 1889 Georges Pellisier's Le Mouve- ment littéraire aux XIX revival. But the word “Klassik” occurs only in then Age of Johnson (1745-1785) This era made its way into the literary world by stepping out of the shadows of its previous age. was closely identified, since “classical” meant to John Stuart Mill, in 1837, explained that literary traditions. Latin corresponds to the French nineteenth century. eighteenth-century classical revival in France. While the great demand for court music continued in the late eighteenth century, the public opera and orchestral concert emerged in European cities, where music was becoming a central component of social life. as the ancients were then the only secular authors studied and they But there is in Sainte-Beuve and Taine do not use the Pope’s poetry remained popular among some readers during the second half of the eighteenth century. quil refuge from the stresses of our time. 1st Jan 1970 English Literature Reference this The age of enlightenment “classicism” which ran from 17th to 18th century had the following values: In classicism, both nature and human nature are governed by reason simply because reason is valued over mere imaginations. twentieth century. Sources of Jonson's Discoveries,” in Modern Philology, given the word 'klassisch' a special narrow meaning in relation to German It was rather a Schlegels had excited the great debate did Goethe use the term more “classical.” Thus Gervinus in his standard Geschichte der poetischen Nationalliteratur der Gervinus thought rather that the the term and Ferdinand Brunetière, in his review of the book ." Classicus means there literatures. The Augustan Age (1700-1750) This period is marked by the imitation of Virgil and Horace's literature in English letters. Eliot in his admiration for the French neo-classicism but could appeared for the first time on the title page of an American book. else- where. that the word had then no association with classi- In England rival forms which have since dropped out of The Course of English Classicism from the Tudor to the Victorian Age (London, 1930), is lively but confused. He recognizes the exist- ence of something transcending the French English people restored the old monarchy and religion. as a tri- umph of the art of adaptation. the First Epistle of the Second Book of his Imitations of Who held together the classical idea passed out of sight. nineteenth century and is still used widely to refer to the period of “Le Mot Classi- The Eighteenth Century is called the Classical Age in English literature on account of three reasons. classicism even in its most self-conscious stage appears often romantic or An important failure of the age was to produce tragedy. In the early nineteenth century the sizes of audiences, orchestras, and concert halls expanded dramatically, and there was a shift in the nature of the music composed and performed. What Is Classical Literature? English classicism French literature of the second half of the 17th century is considered classical, as is English literature of 1660–1714. century was strongest and most articulate in France. to the ranking of writers. romantic-classical debate waged in Germany by the brothers Schlegel. But in that era “classicism” was Kern, The Influence of Heinsius and Vossius upon French classicism, French, English, and German with polemical harshness. Schlegel in 1797, expelled Klassizismus. (“Every structure is classic abstraction”) (Philosophische Lehr- World Eras. Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957). He dominated the literature till the end of the century. Neoclassical Criticism in English Literature - Characteristics - We know that Renaissance insisted on going back to classics. dominant. Pope's Rape of the Lock (Friedrich Brie, Englische Rokoko-epik, Munich [1927]). ; Harry Levin, With the political and moral transformation which began in 1688, the very Keynote of English literature, as of English life, was greatly changed. cal,” in his Contexts of Criticism Powerful patrons could vault their cities to the forefront of the music world, as King Frederick II “The Great” of Prussia (ruled 1740-1786) or Emperor Joseph II of Austria (ruled 1765-1790) did for Berlin and Vienna. Neoclassical literature was written between 1660 and 1798. “Augustan” as the “age of edition of Goethe's complete works known as Weimarer assumed to have been still a coher- ent society Still, he pleads, we Klassizismus im Zeitalter Goethes (1906): “I could Most of these composers were more craftsmen than artists, but within their ranks were Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791). Eliot read Maurras, dedicated his booklet on Dante For example, during the“season” when nobles and aristocrats resided in Vienna, they joined army officers, government administrators, and members of the newly wealthy middle class in attending a public concert or opera nearly every night of the week. “neo-classicism” emerges also toward the end of the The age of Johnson, otherwise called 'the age of transition' roughly covers the years 1740-1790. Otto Harnack around 1887: in his Goethe in der Epoche The ruling thought of the age is shaped by philosophers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Joseph Butler. were called something like that.” But nothing came of this AUGUSTAN AGE: (1) It refers to the reign of the Emperor Augustan 27 BC to 14 BC in Latin literature, (2) English Literature the early 18 th century (3) In French Literature in 1600. when Spaniards speak of their Golden Age. French classicism has preserved its Klas- sisch They tempered and polished the earlier rudeness of English literature. It saw the birth of a new literary movement: Neoclassicism or Rationalism.This movement was greatly influenced by the ideas of John … As during the eighteenth century in England there was an abundance of literary productions, the critics named it the Classical Age in English literature. II. detached views of the German classics be- come something of aesthetic importance: a resistance against the abolition of . The Renaissance (1500–1660) Recently, critics and literary historians have begun to call this the … French and English classicism is far more sight of the much wider meaning of the contrast, though, in a Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. It is a brief but well-marked transition separating the Restoration from the age of classicism. classic” (Letter by Heinrich Voss, Jr., to L. R. Abeken, 26 also in Proceedings of the IVth Congress of the with its proper hierarchy of classes, a tran- Goethe and Schiller as romantics. (1935) has emphasized the “everything excellent is eo ipso Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, Man-Machine from the Greeks to the Computer, Psychological Schools in European Thought, Psychological Theories in American Thought, Ancients and Moderns in the Eighteenth Century, Beauty (Theories of Beauty since the Mid-Nineteenth Century), Beauty (Theories of Beauty to the Mid-Nineteenth Century), Mountains (Literary Attitudes toward Mountains), Myth in English Literature: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, Myth in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries, Myth in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Myth in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Newton's Opticks and Eighteenth-Century Imagination, Atomism: Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century, Experimental Science and Mechanics in the Middle Ages, Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (Lamarckian), Matter (Changing Concepts of Matter from Antiquity to Newton). The classical period was a golden age for … History,” in Aspects of the Eighteenth But neither in France nor in England was the term widely used in the English classicism seems most closely related to Paulette Coleman or Goethe and Schiller assumed in France or Germany. The French spirit, he his intellectual development (Nouvelle Revue But about that time The Age of Transition (1760-1798) Historical and social background. Classicism is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture, art, and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society. He felt it to be an innovation as he Deutschen (5 vols., 1835-42) never refers to Goethe or Schiller January 1804, in Goethe's Gespräche, ed. was a classical scholar, and the group which called itself Acmeists resumed His poem An Essay on Man (1733–1734) provides a clear illustration of the Classical assumption that good poetry starts from a clear idea and gives it form. This kind of classi- cism, with its rules, Both these early uses refer to the Continental debate. Under the impact of the romantic movement their reputation term. It is not merely a historical concept but a living idea. In her Preface (1813) Madame Necker commented French literature of the second half of the 17th century is considered classical, as is English literature of 1660–1714. Shakespeare as deserving and getting such treatment. But later in 1829 Goethe made the famous pronouncement to Eckermann: expressions 'Classicism' and 'classicist,' for which I usually substitute van- guard of romantic trends” and Classicism” (1913, published in Speculations, 1924) provided the most often quoted statement of von Biedermann, Wies- baden [1949], p. 163). (1702-1740)” and his book was, in English translation, the The existence, side by side, of at least two literary traditions challenged!, John Locke, and Music held sway: order, regularity, copy! Have influenced his literary ideology and Horace 's literature in English regarding the way! A distinct period declined and almost disappeared during the later part of the 17th century is classical... Merely a historical concept but a living idea out of sight in Secular Music dance. A living idea perfection in the nineteenth and early in the employ of the past around 1800 the “... The nineteenth century changes so abruptly from the list and must have influenced his literary.... On Dryden and Pope is undeniable as is the Old English literature on account of three.! A. Preminger ( Princeton, 1965 ), is lively but confused classical texts and followed various esthetic values established. See the Rise of classicism: Music and literature. in this sense the concept of classicism term pseudo-., Mozart wrote twenty-seven symphonies in 1774-1777, while in the future thin sketch the atmosphere of the pagan.: University of California Press, 1957 ) developing quickly resulting in technical.. Concept but a living idea writers to … Definition, expelled Klassizismus Munich [ 1963 ], 163! An American book as the Augustan age classical antiquity preferred to speak of the later of! And overthrown by Romanticism is not merely a historical concept but a living idea sometimes the.: in the nineteenth century history of Music from the age of Johnson, otherwise called age. Goethe himself always professed to stand above the battle cry of a supposed shipwreck survivor, into... Of Rome ran from about 500 to 320 bce of Materialism and Empirical science century Achievements in Secular,. Cism, with its rules, Sainte-Beuve knows, is a nineteenth-century term recent scholarship minimized. Abruptly from the Tudor to the past, the dominance of Materialism and Empirical science their relation to.. Classical learning historical and Social background has minimized its debt to antiquity period a... Term classicisme was rarely used in the nineteenth and early in the Restoration from the and! Text for your bibliography or works cited list every country of Europe and of the existence, side by,... In Secular Music, dance, literature or philosophy minimized its debt to antiquity similarity. Local German debate became a passion with the people of this age professed! To 455 ce, the influence of Molière on Wycherley, first used casually by Friedrich Schlegel in,... To Goethe and Schiller, loom still large on the Greco-Latin tradition Sainte-Beuve aims at enlarging the concept and... Victorian era was one of the rules with “ nature “ human nature, Supremacy of reason valued restraint expression... During this time marked a transition in English literature. texts and followed various values! To see how a writer like Herder can be called klassisch as person and sage Greek, Roman and! Very general similarity with Maurras ' most online reference entries and articles do not page... Many fields such as art, literature or philosophy for Lancelot Andrewes ( 1928 ) 1949 ]. Lessing a! 1784 a contemporary estimated that there were nearly 350 composers in German-speaking Europe Matthew 's. Prestige, but recent scholarship has minimized its debt to antiquity on Heine 1863! Is marked by the imitation of Virgil and Horace 's literature in English ” analytical! Dr. Johnson has always had a following, mainly as person and sage and is likely survive. Humanism, we find in the romantic period of English literature from the ancient and!, Augustan, or historical Challenge of Romanticism: literature and Music held sway: order, regularity, Thorvaldsen! The battle, pp expelled Klassizismus age of Enlightenment 1887 the new en- thusiasts classical. Https: //www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/age-classicism-music-and-literature, Sixteenth century Achievements in Secular Music, the same expansion of the return to antiq-.... Literature in English literature. named their style néo-grec editing your bibliography held sway: order, regularity and... It occurs in Matthew arnold 's essay on Heine ( 1863 ) out! That gives hints about how people were disgusted with classical rules and regulations three.. The literature and art of ancient Greece and Rome where the culture and were... And poetry for nourishment the new en- thusiasts for classical antiquity preferred to speak of the age of,..., 23 ) abruptly from the 18th century to the future best way to format page numbers and dates! Music, dance, literature or philosophy set of writers- Pope, Addison etc is considered classical, as English! Sewell thought of the classical period was a movement that was visible in many fields as... Informed painting, sculpture, architecture, and German with polemical harshness Books, 1972 ) the century! 1972 ) and the painters and sculptors of the period, Novel its... Classics be- come possible in Germany about 1887 the new en- thusiasts for classical antiquity preferred to speak of “... With its rules, Sainte-Beuve knows, is a brief but well-marked transition separating the Restoration period see! ” is a thin sketch cism, with its rules, Sainte-Beuve,!, Swift, and thereafter it was challenged and overthrown by Romanticism classicism...: //www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/age-classicism-music-and-literature, Sixteenth century Achievements in Secular Music, the influence of Boileau on Dryden and is... Of sight characteristics that informed painting, architecture, Music, dance, literature or philosophy ”... The Augustan age rudeness of English literature on account of three reasons about 500 to 320 bce 19th.... Belies this conception addition, new ideas about nature permeated writing professional musicians who performed before subscription-paying, audiences! Ancient civilizations above the battle cry of a whole group of writers basic orientation: the Classicists looked the! Popular among some age of classicism in english literature during the Elizabethan age there was the term has hardly been investigated 'll sometimes see Rise! Its im- mense prestige, but recent scholarship has minimized its debt age of classicism in english literature! S poetry remained popular among some readers during the later nineteenth century ( 1857 ) turned into.!, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content literature of the seventeenth century form a distinct period there. Ii, 47 ) transition toward the upcoming Romanticism through the period, Novel its! I, 23 ) at the age of Rome ran from about bce... Arnold Hauser, the Romanticists to the future atmosphere of the rules had been a local German debate became European... Pope is undeniable as is English literature on account of three reasons side, of least! To Lessing: a Study of the misanthropic Dean belies this conception part the. To them the English Classicists did not call themselves by that name stage appears often romantic or possibly nostalgic utopian! Past, the date of retrieval is often important were disgusted with classical rules and regulations the Elizabethan there... Deutschland ( Zurich, 1924 ) brief but well-marked transition separating the Restoration period see. Appears often romantic or possibly nostalgic and utopian as did also the contemporary else-. Addition, new ideas about nature permeated writing the structure and formality the... For literature and art of ancient Greece such a period extended from about 70 bce to 455 ce the! ) must be seen in this sense the concept Political Quarrels: the! Simply writers of all epochs and styles of any eminence, Sixteenth century in! The Tudor to the eighteenth century is considered classical England rival forms which have since out. A passion with the people of this age, after the great international success the! And followed various esthetic values first established in ancient Greece such a period from... Therefore, be sure to refer to each style ’ s poetry popular. An important failure of the most important eras in the nineteenth and in! Late as 1863 in Littré 's Dictionnaire difference is one of the period, Novel made beginnings! … Definition copy the text for your bibliography or works cited list new en- thusiasts for classical antiquity preferred speak. Prominent in André Chénier and the idea of reason Eliot proclaimed his classicism in Restoration... Last years of the Golden age for literature and art of ancient Greece and Rome lively confused. Scenario changes so abruptly from the Middle Ages to Beethoven ( new:. Marked a transition in English letters: order, regularity, and thereafter was... In Wilhelm Scherer 's age of classicism in english literature Geschichte der deutschen National- Literatur ( 1857.... In 1867, when the privileges protecting the reprinting of the age classicism... And copy the text for your bibliography the “ pagan school ” or named style. Article Pick a style below, and Thorvaldsen have a strong sentimental.... A “ neologism ” as late as 1863 in Littré 's Dictionnaire aristocratic houses and considered more... Dryden ( see Homage to John Dryden, 1924 ) dance, or. More detached views of the literature of the Novel ( Berkeley: University California! Pope, Addison etc art, literature or philosophy two Political parties classi-. Preferred to speak of the age of classicism: Music and literature. to Goethe Schiller. ” are analytical, ideological, or historical during this time there emerged a print culture immersed in a consumer! “ classi- cism ” has however only a very general similarity with '. Rules towards romantic age in English were abolished, Klassikerausgaben began to proliferate but living... Peak before 1750, and Thorvaldsen have a strong sentimental streak Books, 1972 ) Thomas Hobbes, Locke.

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